Heat is a problem in most engineering systems whether the heat surpasses the temperature that sulfidation begins to occur in process boilers to burning chips in integrated circuits (ICs), the maximum operating temperature is almost always of concern. CFD allows for direct computation of operating temperatures and film coefficients.

Coupling the solution of the energy equation with the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations adds only 1 term to the solution of a complex set of equations. Therefore, it’s “not a big deal” to solve for the heat state of a system while solving for the flow. Furthermore, radiation terms for high temperature systems can be included with the solution of an additional set of equations. PMI has experience with gas dynamics that include compressible flow and temperatures to 3000°F (near disassociation), and with a wide variety of other thermal systems including fluids and solids.

PMI’s engineers have experience with an expansive range of thermally coupled systems. Some of our experience includes:

  • Heated aerobic digesters
  • Analysis of T1 repeater card enclosures
  • Analysis of a complex laser tracking system
  • Analysis of ferrule systems for process boilers (including radiation)
  • Analysis of equipment for the International Space Station (ISS) where radiation is the primary mode of heat transfer

Boiler Tube Temperature 

Thermal Management

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